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Overview of Medieval Monasticism – Timeline

December 28, 2007

251-356 – Life of Anthony

320 – Pachomius (293-346) begins first communal monastery (Tabennisi, Egypt)

330– Amoun and Macarius also found monasteries in the Egyptian desert

370– Basil, Aescetica

386– Jerome founds monasteries in Bethlehem

390-459 Symeon the Stylite (c. 390 – 459) lives atop a column in Syria

401- Augustine of Hippo, On the Works of Monks , a work stressing value of manual labour

453– Patrick commissioned as missionary to Ireland

526– Benedict writes his Rule

563- Columbanus founds monastery at Iona, Scotland

597– Augustine (of Canterbury) sent to British isles as missionary by Pope Gregory I

635 Aidan founds Lindisfarne

663– Synod of Whitby resolves differences between Celtic and Roman Christianity

731– Bede, History of the English Church and People

793– Vikings sack Lindisfarne

909– Berno founds Cluny.

936– Abbot Laffredus of Farfa poisoned by two monks for trying for enforcing the Benedictine rule

943- Dunstan calls for monastic reform in England

1084 – Bruno founds the Carthusians

1098 – Robert Molêsme founds Cistercian order

1099 – First Crusade captures Jerusalem

1115 – Bernard begins Cistercian abbey at Clairvaux

1118 – The Knights Templar form in Jerusalem

1127 – Bernard of Clairvaux, Apologia – prophetic critique of the Cluniacs

1128 – Knights Templar adopt that Cistercian rule

1170 -1221- Life of Dominic

1181/82-1226 – Life of Francis of Assisi

1210 – Pope Innocent III recognizes the Franciscans

1215 Fourth Lateran Council calls for monastic reform and regulation

1217 – Pope Honorius III licenses the Order of Preachers (Dominicans )

1221 – Death of St. Dominic, founder of the Dominican Order

1233 – Dominicans to staff the Roman Inquisition

1243-1256 Pope Innocent IV consolidates OSA (Order of Saint Augustine)

1314– Knights Templar disbanded

1318 – Order of Christ succeeds Knights Templar

1323 – Pope John XXII opposes doctrine of apostolic poverty

1328 – William of Ockham excommunicated for Spiritual Franciscan views

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